α-Carotene – to vitamin A carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange. β-Carotene – to vitamin A dark, leafy greens, red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables. γ-Carotene – to vitamin A, δ-Carotene ε-carotene Lycopene Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots, autumn olive. Neurosporene Phytofluene star fruit, sweet potato, orange. Phytoene sweet potato, orange.
Canthaxanthin – Paprika & mushrooms. Cryptoxanthin (Converts to vitamin A) – Mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi. Zeaxanthin – Wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, red pepper, pumpkin, orange. Astaxanthin – Microalgae, yeast. Lutein – Spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, brassicas, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear, cilantro. Rubixanthin – Rose hip.
Saponins soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa. Oleanolic acid American pokeweed, honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, cloves, and many other Syzygium species. Ursolic acid apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes. Betulinic acid Ber tree, white birch, winged beans, tropical carnivorous plants Triphyophyllum peltatum, Ancistrocladus heyneanus, Diospyros leucomelas a member of the persimmon family, Tetracera boiviniana, the jambul ( Syzygium formosanum), chaga, and many other Syzygium species. Moronic acid Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe
Cafestol Coffea arabica in unfiltered form such as French press coffee or Turkish coffee/Greek coffee. [
Limonene oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil. Perillyl alcohol citrus oils, hops, caraway, mints.
Phytosterols almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils. Campesterol buckwheat. beta Sitosterol avocado, rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat. gamma sitosterol Stigmasterol buckwheat. Tocopherols (vitamin E)
Apiole parsley, celery leaf. Carnosol rosemary, sage. Carvacrol oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot. Dillapiole dill, fennel root. Rosemarinol rosemary.
Flavonols Quercetin red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans, lovage. Kaempferol tea, strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, grapefruit, apples, peas, brassicates (broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, cabbage), chives, spinach, endive, leek, tomatoes. Myricetin grapes, red wine, berries, walnuts. Fisetin strawberries, cucumbers. Rutin citrus fruits, oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit, berries, peaches, apples, pagoda tree fruits, asparagus, buckwheat, parsley, tomatoes, apricots, rhubarb, tea. Isorhamnetin red turnip, goldenrod, mustard leaf, ginkgo biloba, onion. Flavanones Hesperidin citrus fruits. Naringenin citrus fruits. Silybin milk thistle. Eriodictyol citrus fruits. Flavones Acacetin Robinia pseudoacacia, Turnera diffusa. Apigenin chamomile, celery, parsley. Chrysin Passiflora caerulea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Oroxylum indicum. Diosmetin Vicia. Tangeritin tangerine and other citrus peels. Luteolin beets, artichokes, celery, carrots, celeriac, rutabaga, parsley, mint, chamomile, lemongrass, chrysanthemum. Flavan-3-ols (flavanols) Catechins white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, black-eyed peas. (+)-Catechin (+)-Gallocatechin (−)-Epicatechin (−)-Epigallocatechin (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) green tea. (−)-Epicatechin 3-gallate Theaflavin black tea. Theaflavin-3-gallate black tea. Thearubigins black tea. Proanthocyanidins Flavanonols Anthocyanidins (flavonals) and Anthocyanins red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables. Pelargonidin bilberry, raspberry, strawberry. Peonidin bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach. Cyanidin red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa. Delphinidin bilberry, blueberry, eggplant. Malvidin malve, bilberry, blueberry. Petunidin
Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) use the 3-phenylchromen- 4-one skeleton (with no hydroxyl group substitution on carbon at position 2). Daidzein (formononetin) soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, kudzu, other legumes. Genistein (biochanin A) soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes. Glycitein soy. Isoflavanes Isoflavandiols Isoflavenes Pterocarpans or Coumestans (phytoestrogens) Coumestrol red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts.
Silymarin artichokes, milk thistle.
Phytoestrogens seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables. [
Matairesinol flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli. Secoisolariciresinol flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots. Pinoresinol and lariciresinol  sesame seed, Brassica vegetables.
Resveratrol grape (skins and seeds, grape wine), nuts, peanuts, Japanese Knotweed root. Pterostilbene grapes, blueberries. Piceatannol grapes. Pinosylvin
Curcumin (Oxidizes to vanillin) turmeric, mustard.
Ellagitannins Punicalagins tea, berries. Castalagins Vescalagins oak wood.  Castalins Casuarictins Grandinins Punicalins Roburin As Tellimagrandin IIs Terflavin Bs Gallotannins Digalloyl glucose 1,3,6-Trigalloyl glucose
Proanthocyanidins horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, cranberry juice, peanut skin, grape. Polyflavonoid tannins Catechol-type tannins Pyrocatecollic type tannins Flavolans
brown alga species ( Ecklonia cava, Sargassum mcclurei), sea oak ( Eisenia bicyclis, Fucus vesiculosus).
Mongolian Oak ( Quercus mongolica).
Salicylic acid peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat. Vanillin and Vanillic acid açaí oil, vanilla beans, cloves. Gallic acid tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy. Ellagic acid walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes. Tannic acid nettles, tea, berries.
Caffeic acid burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple, olive oil. Chlorogenic acid echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries. Cinnamic acid cinnamon, aloe. Ferulic acid oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut, açaí oil. Coumarin citrus fruits, maize.
Tyrosol olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol olive oil. Oleocanthal olive oil. Oleuropein olive oil.
Capsaicin chilli peppers. Gingerol ginger. Alkylresorcinols wholegrain wheat, rye and barley. Piperine black pepper.
The precursor to isothiocyanates
Sinigrin (the precursor to allyl isothiocyanate) broccoli family, brussels sprouts, black mustard. Glucotropaeolin (the precursor to benzyl isothiocyanate) Gluconasturtiin (the precursor to phenethyl isothiocyanate) Glucoraphanin (the precursor to sulforaphane) brassicas: broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages.
Dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates) Sulforaphane brassicas: broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages. Allyl isothiocyanate Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Benzyl Isothiocyanate Oxazolidine-2-thiones Nitriles Thiocyanates
Organosulfides/ Organosulfur compounds
Polysulfides (allium compounds) Allyl methyl trisulfide garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots. Sulfides Diallyl disulfide garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots. Allicin garlic. Alliin garlic. Allyl isothiocyanate horseradish, mustard, wasabi. Syn-propanethial-S-oxide cut onions.
Indole-3-carbinol cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane or DIM broccoli family, brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale.
Betacyanins beets, chard, Amaranthus tricolor. betanin isobetanin probetanin neobetanin Betaxanthins (non glycosidic versions) Indicaxanthin beets, sicilian prickly pear. Vulgaxanthin beets.
Chlorophyllin: Dark green leafy vegetables like spinach, wheatgrass
Other organic acids
Saturated cyclic acids Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds. Quinic acid Oxalic acid orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper. Tartaric acid apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes, tamarind. Anacardic acid cashews, mangoes. Malic acid apples. Caftaric acid grapes. Coutaric acid grapes. Fertaric acid
Hexose wheat, barley. Pentose rye, oat.
Beta-glucan Chitin – fungi includes other edible mushrooms. Lentinan – fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium (LEM)) and other edible mushrooms.
Fructan Inulins – diverse plants, e.g. topinambour, chicory.
Lignin – stones of fruits, vegetables (filaments of the garden bean), cereals.
Pectins – the fruit skin (mainly apples, quinces), vegetables.
Protease inhibitors soybean, seeds, legumes, potatoes, eggs, cereals.