Resveratrol is A polyphenolic compound produced in plants in response to injury or pathogenic attack from bacteria or fungi. Resveratrol exerts a diverse array of biological effects, including antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, and hormonal activities. It activates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an enzyme that deacetylates proteins and contributes to cellular regulation (including autophagy). Dietary sources of resveratrol include grapes, blueberries, raspberries, and mulberries.
Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) belongs to a class of polyphenolic compounds called stilbenes. Certain plants produce resveratrol and other stilbenoids in response to stress, injury, fungal infection, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Resveratrol is a fat-soluble compound that occurs in both transand cis molecular configurations. Both cis– and trans-resveratrol also occur as glucosides, i.e., bound to a glucose molecule. One major resveratrol derivative is resveratrol-3-O-β-glucoside, also called piceid..
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Since the early 1990s, when the presence of resveratrol in red wine was established, the scientific community has been exploring the effects of resveratrol on health. Specifically, it was postulated that resveratrol intake via moderate red wine consumption might help explain the fact that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in spite of consuming foods high in saturated fat, a phenomenon dubbed the “French Paradox”. Since then, reports on the potential for resveratrol to prevent cancer, delay the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, and extend lifespan in experimental models have continued to generate scientific interest.